Posts Tagged ‘watershed’

by Paul Scott, Volunteer Watershed Ambassador

Bon Tempe and Mt. Tamalpais

Bon Tempe Lake on the Mt. Tamalpais Watershed

Earth Day is upon us! This is the time to ponder our relationship with our one and only planet. In this regard a major force for me has been Mt. Tamalpais, the “crown jewel” being MMWD’s watershed lands.

The Mt. Tamalpais Watershed consists of five reservoirs and primarily the north-facing slopes of the mountain that shed rainwater into them. These “lakes” have been here long enough that they are now a focal point for the diversity of flora and fauna found here. Camping, hunting, swimming, and boating are a no-no and cars have very limited access, so it’s an oasis of sorts for natural processes to occur with minimal human disruption. While the “purpose” of these lands is to provide clean drinking water, requiring wise ecological practices, we are also blessed with their biodiversity and many recreational opportunities.

The natural resources staff work out of Sky Oaks Watershed Headquarters located in the hills above Fairfax and in close proximity to three of the reservoirs. Their volunteer program offers abundant opportunity for young and old, all geared toward environmental education, wise resource management, and furthering community spirit. As a volunteer and near-daily visitor to the watershed lands myself, I see folks come to visit with smiles on their faces. Many of them are “regulars” who tell me they feel the same way I do about the area—it is a place of peace and sanctuary. I’m amazed how many come from other countries, but I’m most surprised when I meet local people who had no idea all this was here.

Come develop your relationship with your watershed—for Earth Day and any day. Experience a fine example of how humans can make use of natural resources in an intelligent and sympathetic manner for everything and everyone to share.

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by Andrea Williams

This is installment three of a twelve-part series on grasses. Read the previous installment here.

Last month I talked about California’s state grass, purple needlegrass (Stipa pulchra, formerly Nassella pulchra). This month, California’s state rock, serpentinite (although we usually just call it serpentine since it’s made up of serpentine minerals), takes center stage. California was actually the first state to designate an official rock, but serpentine is special and, like our Mediterranean climate, helped give rise to plants found nowhere else in the world.

barbed goat grass

The spikelets of barbed goatgrass look a little like goat heads, although that’s not where the name comes from.

Because of the makeup of serpentine rock, and its slow weathering, serpentine soils are thin, poor, and high in heavy metals. The mineral balance is quite different from what most plants can tolerate, so many plants found on serpentine are endemics: they’re only found on this soil type. Others can grow on serpentine and non-serpentine soils, but may be stunted or appear different when living in the strange soil.

Many weeds take advantage of disturbance and can quickly use resources, outcompeting other plants. But serpentine’s qualities make it naturally resistant to invasion, with a few notable exceptions. That brings us to this month’s grass: barbed goatgrass (Aegilops triuncialis). Originally from serpentine soils in the Mediterranean region and Eastern Europe/Western Asia, barbed goatgrass can thrive in our soils and climate. Not only does it do well on serpentine, the high silica content of the litter it produces is difficult to break down, further altering the soil and making it even harder for other plants to grow! Goatgrass also has a built-in seed stashing strategy: Each spikelet generally has two seeds—one germinates the first year, and the other lays dormant for a year—so even if you get all the plants in a year, the seedbank of this annual has a surprise waiting for you the next.

habitat restoration site

On May 17, help pull invasive barbed goatgrass in this beautiful spot.

Nearly half of our rare plants are found on serpentine soils, which makes these areas so important to protect. You have an opportunity on May 17 to help remove invasive barbed goatgrass from serpentine soils on Mt. Tamalpais, in the Azalea Hill/Pine Mountain area. We’ve been pulling goatgrass from this site for many years, and stemming the tide of invasion. Nine different rare plants call this spot home, and jackrabbits and kites are often seen as well—not to mention our state flower, state bird, and state rock!


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by Andrea Williams

This is installment two of a twelve-part series on grasses. Read the previous installment here.

California state flag

California state flag

You all know the grizzly bear is a main feature of the California flag, but did you ever give a thought to the turf below its paws? While I can’t be certain, I and others like to think they are tussocks of our state grass, purple needlegrass (Stipa pulchra, formerly Nassella pulchra). Did you not know California had a state grass? Purple needlegrass was designated our state grass in 2004, so while it’s only been official for 10 years, this pulchritudinous pastoral plant has been an important and widespread part of our state since well before there was a California. In fact, since individual purple needlegrass clumps can live more than 150 years, there may be plants alive today that have been around since before there was a California!

purple needlegrass

Purple needlegrass (Stipa pulchra) Photo credit: Stephanie Bishop

Purple needlegrass is not only widespread and long-lived, but also quite distinctive in its look. Its inflorescence of delicate purple pennons wave above a mound of fine emerald blades. This fine look has it also available at many native plant nurseries. Some may mistake ripgut brome (Bromus diandrus) for purple needlegrass, but the former—a non-native annual weed—holds a fistful of red bristles on single stalks, with no basal clump of leaves. And while ripgut brome is a danger to grazing animals, purple needlegrass remains an excellent forage species—for cattle, elk, deer, or bears!


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Earth Day Marin 2014We’re pleased to be a major sponsor and partner of the Earth Day Marin 2014 Festival. The fourth annual festival is scheduled for Sunday, April 6, 11 a.m. – 5 p.m. at Redwood High School, 395 Doherty Drive in Larkspur.

The free, family-friendly event will include music, hands-on activities, inspiring speakers, storytellers, puppet shows, authors, organic food, and more. The event is also a day of action on sustainability solutions addressing drought, climate change, and other environmental concerns.

In addition to sponsoring Earth Day Marin, we’ll be providing drinking water for the event—Mt. Tam’s finest!—as well as free stainless steel water bottles for the first 500 attendees who take action at the festival to reduce their water use.

We’ll have a variety of information and resources on hand to help you save water and money, and to learn more about where your water comes from. Highlights include:

  • Free high-efficiency showerheads and faucet aerators
  • One-on-one consultations with MMWD conservation specialists to help you calculate your home water use and find ways to save
  • Opportunities to sign up for MMWD rebates, water use surveys for your home or business, Marin-Friendly Garden Walks with Marin Master Gardeners, and more
  • Hands-on demonstrations of irrigation equipment
  • How to read your water meter
  • Water- and money-saving coupons from local retailers
  • Free illustrated posters of MMWD’s watershed and water system for first 150 families who visit the festival’s “water village”
  • Hands-on biodiversity activities about the plants and animals who call the Mt. Tamalpais Watershed home
  • Opportunities to volunteer on the Mt. Tamalpais Watershed
  • Behind-the-scenes look at how your water gets from “Tam to tap”
  • Demonstrations of the high-tech acoustic equipment MMWD’s leak detectives use to locate leaks in the district’s 900 miles of pipeline
  • Screening of “The Invisible Peak,” Gary Yost’s new documentary about the hidden Cold War history of Mt. Tam’s West Peak and efforts to restore it

For complete details about the festival, visit earthdaymarin.org.

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by Eric Ettlinger

Coho season is wrapping up, and thankfully it’s ending with more of a bang than a whimper. In late January, at the typical end of the coho spawning season, the San Francisco Chronicle ran the headline “Crisis for the coho” with a couple of pictures showing the extremely dry conditions in the Lagunitas Creek watershed. As if on cue, the rain started falling a few days later and coho spawning took off. Since then spawning activity has subsided and in the last week we’ve seen what are likely the last few coho of the season. Our preliminary watershed totals are 433 coho and 203 redds, which is roughly double the size of the coho run three years ago.

Steelhead (pictured) have also been spawning in impressive numbers. In the last three weeks MMWD biologists have seen 153 steelhead and 126 redds. Steelhead are likely to continue spawning through at least April, and at this pace we’re looking at a very good year for steelhead. Rain is forecast to return late next week, which should bring up another wave of steelhead spawners.

steelhead female and small male

Steelhead female and small male

steelhead male

Steelhead male

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by Andrea Williams

This is installment one of a twelve-part series on grasses.

When someone asks what my favorite grass is, I prevaricate. Who can have just one? If pressed, I’ll pick California oatgrass (Danthonia californica), for reasons I’ll get into another time—but as a genus, fescues (Festuca sp.) are the best. Several of them have made their way into our gardens as lawns and ornamentals, but they’re natural standouts.

Most of our native fescues like to grow in big tussocky stands, sending slender stalks of spikelets to wave above dense clumps of fine leaves. Idaho (or blue) fescue (Festuca idahoensis) is probably our most well-known native; the tight blue bunches accent many a drought-tolerant landscape, and it’s found in our hottest driest spots on Mt. Tam as well. In the wild, it’s a little looser and tends to silver instead of blue, and can be hard to tell from red fescue (F. rubra) on occasion. Red fescue’s leaves aren’t red, but its flowering stalks often are. The fine leaf blades are rolled in long needles, and in most cases are a deep emerald green—the exception being, of course, when it grows in drier spots with Idaho fescue and the two species are almost indistinguishable. Red fescue is at its finest on the coast; the most common cultivar ‘Molate’ is from Point Molate, just on the Richmond side of the Richmond-San Rafael Bridge, where the coastal grassland was nearly lost to development.

California fescue on Azalea Hill

California fescue on Azalea Hill

Our largest and perhaps most striking native fescue (or fesque, as it used to be spelled) is California fescue. Clusters of blue-green leaves grow as tall as three feet and tussocks can reach four feet across; single flowering stalks reach six or more feet in the air. The plant keeps its flowering stalk and stays mostly green year-round, keeping things visually interesting as the seasons turn. I usually find it at moist edges of woodlands and forests, and the stands near Azalea Hill and along Bolinas-Fairfax Road are some of the finest anywhere. Sometimes people have difficulty telling California fescue from the thirsty fungus-harboring invasive non-native tall fescue (F. arundinacea), but the coarse broad green blades and tillering spread of tall fescue are dead giveaways.

So whether you’re seeking a good-looking grass for your yard or on a hike, just remember: it’s fescue to the rescue!

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by Eric Ettlinger

Female coho

Female coho (photo by Rosa Albanese)

It’s been an exciting couple of weeks in the Lagunitas Creek watershed. In my last update I described how coho salmon spawning had unexpectedly jumped up (so to speak) following a tiny bit of wet weather on January 30. Another small rain event followed that survey, coinciding with an increase in water releases by MMWD, and more spawning ensued. Over three long and wet days last week MMWD biologists surveyed most of Lagunitas Creek, and finished the uppermost section of creek this morning. In total we counted 118 coho salmon and 56 new coho redds. We also counted 118 salmon during the previous week, but it’s difficult to say how much of this coincidence was due to counting the same fish twice. To date we’ve seen 349 coho and 161 coho redds. This is an increase over three years ago, but still far less than the large coho run we were expecting.

The other big news was, of course, the enormous amount of rain we received. Since Friday the Kent Lake rain gauge has recorded over 11 inches of rain, while the gauge at the top of Mount Tamalpais recorded over 21 inches! This has helped our water supply situation and has finally allowed salmon to swim into the tributaries. Flows are still too high and turbid to conduct surveys, but later this week we’ll be investigating how many salmon survived both drought and flood to return to these creeks at last.

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by Rosa Albanese, Watershed Stewards Project Member

I love frogs When I was asked to organize the 2014 Frog Docent Program at MMWD to get people on board with protecting Mt. Tam’s very own foothill yellow-legged frog (Rana boylii), I was excited because, simply put, frogs are really cool and definitely worth saving. Here are just a few reasons why:

  • They are one of earth’s best indicator species. Their ability to breathe through their skin and their reliance on clean water and clean habitat free of toxics and pollutants means that they are extremely sensitive to changes in the environment. It should be a warning sign to all that if frogs are not doing well, then something is wrong.
  • They serve as a critical part of the food web. Not only do frogs provide a meal to other animals like fish, birds, dragonflies, beetles, and snakes, frogs also prey upon insects such as mosquitoes, which may be vectors for nasty pathogens such as West Nile virus and heartworm.
  • They provide medical researchers with the potential to improve human health. Many pharmaceuticals used to save millions of lives have come from the skin secretions of some very special frog species. Some examples include medicines that help block HIV transmissions, reduce high blood pressure, and treat antibiotic-resistant staph infections.

The sad part is that on a global scale one-third of the world’s amphibian population is diminishing. On a local scale it is just as depressing. The foothill yellow-legged frog population has disappeared from more than 45% of its historic range in California and Oregon, in part due to habitat loss, pesticide use, introduction of exotic predators, disease, water impoundments, logging, mining, and grazing in riparian zones. Kermit was right when he said, “It’s not easy being green.” The current drought conditions are certainly not making matters any better for wildlife. All is not lost, however. There are many things you can do to give frogs a break and make it easier for them to survive and reproduce.

Here are just a few:

  • Conserve water: Clean, cool water is a precious resource and should be conserved at all times but especially during a drought. Simple graywater systems can be implemented around your home; some are as easy as using a bucket to catch water from your sink or tub to flush the toilet!
  • Avoid pesticides: They end up in waterways and harm amphibians. Don’t use them around your home and don’t support them by purchasing fruits and vegetables that are sprayed with them. There have been several examples showing declines in frog populations near agricultural areas and fatal mutations in frogs exposed to herbicides or pesticides.
  • Reduce, reuse, and recycle! Do these in that order and not only will your wallet thank you but the planet will, too.
  • Volunteer to become a frog docent at the water district. Spend a few weekends at Little Carson Falls, a popular hiking destination, informing visitors about the frogs’ plight and keeping foot traffic out of the frogs’ sensitive breeding habitat. The training will be held Saturday, February 22, from 9:00 a.m. to 2:30 p.m. For more information and to reserve a spot, contact volunteerprogram@marinwater.org or call 945-1128.

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by Eric Ettlinger

coho salmon pair

Coho salmon pair in Lagunitas Creek, January 31, 2014

Finally some good news from Lagunitas Creek! Last Friday MMWD biologists conducted surveys to get a baseline salmon count ahead of a three-day increase in stream flows. This was the last “Upstream Migration Flow” of the season, and we wanted to document how many salmon spawned in response to the extra water. We were blown away to see significant numbers of salmon spawning throughout the creek before the flow even started. Apparently the 0.07″ of rain we received on Thursday was enough to encourage coho to finally spawn. In total we observed 118 live coho and 45 new coho redds. So far this season we’ve documented 252 coho and 103 coho redds. On Friday we also saw seven spawning steelhead and seven new steelhead redds. Finally, during a partial survey of Walker Creek (the next salmon stream north of Lagunitas Creek), we found the first coho redd and coho carcass of the season.

The Upstream Migration Flow coincided with 0.8″ of rain on Sunday, and we’ll be documenting the salmon response in Lagunitas and Walker Creeks for the rest of the week. By next week we should have a pretty good idea how many salmon survived the last few months and finally spawned.

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by Eric Ettlinger

Salmon spawning in Lagunitas Creek has remained muted, despite water releases  from Kent Lake. On January 1-3 MMWD released approximately 29 million gallons of water to increase flows in Lagunitas Creek from 20 cubic feet per second (cfs) to 35 cfs. This “upstream migration flow” is intended to allow salmon to swim upstream through shallow areas and spawn, although it’s unusual for spawning activity to increase significantly when these releases don’t coincide with rain. We found 12 new coho redds following the flow, which was an increase from the previous week, but similar to the low counts in December (see chart). We also found a redd that was likely built by a steelhead, which was the first evidence of steelhead in the creek this season. This past week we surveyed all of Lagunitas Creek, nearly down to Point Reyes Station, and found ten new coho redds.

To date we’ve observed 57 coho redds in Lagunitas Creek, which is exceptionally low for mid-January. A surge in spawning is still possible; back in 2001 we counted 96 coho redds in the second-to-last week of January. With no rain in the forecast that’s probably too much to hope for, but hopefully the forecast is wrong and rain is on its way.

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