Posts Tagged ‘tips’

by Charlene Burgi

(This is part two of Charlene’s trip to Italy. Read the first installment here.)

Central and northern Italy’s flora was amazing. The dense, lush vegetation filled every inch that didn’t have a structure or wasn’t cultivated for crops (primarily grapes and olive trees in the Tuscan region). The narrow, twisting, hilly roads in Greve guided us through forests thick with brambles, vines, and wildflowers. Each turn in the road surprised us with charming, tiny villages as we made our way to the Autostrada that paved the way to the ancient walled cities of Tuscany.

Stone steps in Italy

One of thousands of steps

For several days, San Gimignano, Siena, Montepulciano, Pienza, Montalcino, Monteriggioni, and Lucca found my daughter Lynette, her husband Jeff, and my son Randy coaxing me up the steep roads, and what seemed like thousands of steps, to reach the heart and plazas of these walled medieval towns. All the Stair Masters of the world could not have prepared me for this grueling exercise! Though my calves were screaming, the desire to explore drove me on to find the artifacts and ancient art I had read about. In every plaza we found a well covered with a metal grate. The steps leading up to each well provided seating for the weary tourist.

Outdoor restaurant with containter plants in Italy

Dining al fresco

What I didn’t expect was the abundance of window boxes crammed with color that brightened up the ancient structures from the 12th and 13th centuries. Within these ancient cities, all the vegetation was in containers. Repeatedly, star jasmine seemed to be the “star” as its scent filled the air. Despite the size of the plants, I was impressed that all flourished so well in containers. One restaurant even created an outdoor covered arbor using containers of grape vines and, you guessed it, star jasmine to provide shade for the diners underneath.

smoketree in bloom

Smoketree (Cotinus coggygria)

The stone walls of the cities sprouted beautiful foliage that accented the patterns formed by stone masons of yesteryear. The fortress walls angled back toward the center of the town. Even though the stone collected the heat from the summer sun, rain could easily find its way into the crevices to irrigate the tenacious plants.

And rain it did! While in Pienza, Randy and I ducked into the Palazzo Piccolomini, the former papal palace, to find an open roof that allowed rain to collect in the marble-covered room below. Indoor plants of all types prospered in this wealthy environment. Upon our return to the car, we entered a beautiful park where familiar Cotinus coggygria (smoketree) was in full bloom, but sporting white panicles instead of the familiar smokey, pinkish-purple that I know. At that point, the sky opened up and we were grateful for the canopy of trees in the park acting as a giant umbrella for these ill-prepared tourists!

Plants sprouting from a wall San Gimignano

San Gimignano

If conditions are right, plants will thrive. This knowledge was driven home to me over and over again as I witnessed the beauty around me abounding in containers, crevices, and other harsh conditions. It drove home the point of planting native for maximum effectiveness. Year-round rain in Tuscany may increase gardening options without the need of irrigation, but the same principle still applies here at home.

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Having lived through three Marin County droughts, MMWD customer Anne Layzer has become an expert at saving water—even while maintaining a 2,000-square-foot vegetable garden and several smaller flower beds. Her favorite advice for conserving water in the garden? Compost.

Many people think of composting as a way to nourish plants and reduce waste by recycling plant and vegetable trimmings back into the garden. But adding compost to your garden also saves water by building healthier, more sponge-like soil that better absorbs and holds onto moisture. Plants growing in amended soil fare better in drought conditions. And of course by composting kitchen scraps rather than sending them down the garbage disposal, you’ll also save the water and energy needed to operate the disposal unit.

Compost piles

Anne’s backyard composting operation

You can start composting on a small scale and work your way up to an elaborate composting operation like Anne’s, which she describes as a central feature of her garden and household recycling program. Her backyard piles have a diverse diet that includes food scraps, leaves, shredded paper, and grape skins from a wine-making neighbor. Even weeds aren’t unwelcome in her garden—they’re more fodder for the pile.

Anne jokes that she doesn’t know whether she has a compost pile because she has a garden or a garden because she has a compost pile. As her daughter says, “Neither: They are one.”

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by Charlene Burgi

Poppies of Tuscany

Poppies of Tuscany

How do I even begin to describe everything about this dream trip? First, I sadly left at home my husband Jack who needed to tend to our critters, but I was blessed to be able to share this adventure with my children. My daughter and son-in-law (Lynette and Jeff), son (Randy), and I arrived at our first destination in the Tuscan hills of Chianti at dusk while it was just light enough to embrace our magnificent surroundings. We found the environment to be a wonderful assault on our senses.

Visually, the beauty of the green rolling hills covered in terraced grapevines reminded me of Sonoma on steroids. The twilight seemed to accentuate the villas and highlight the ancient walled cities proudly sitting alit atop the crest of each rolling hill. Wild vegetation abounded in the hollows that were dotted with the orange-red poppies famously associated with Tuscany.

Little-leaf linden

Little-leaf linden

And what was that fragrance? As we departed from our rented car, the air filled with the scent of star jasmine (Trachelospermum jasminoides)—yet there was something more, something I couldn’t identify by scent or sight. The fragrance was much stronger as we approached one of the trees that lined the walk to our vacation home. Large clusters of tiny yellow-green flowers graced the bottom of dark green leaves in the canopy of the tree. Drawing from the recesses of my mind, I remembered the nursery would occasionally carry a tree with these same leaves—little-leaf linden (Tilia cordata). The small nursery trees did not bear the fabulous fragrant cluster of flowers. This new-found knowledge about this flowering tree caused me to regret that more of these trees did not find their way into Marin! The next day, we drove a few miles to the tiny town, Greve, where an alley of linden trees further confirmed the need to share and praise its beauty with you!

Fruiting Mulberry

Fruiting mulberry

It goes without saying that our sense of taste was also enriched. Fresh fruit and vegetables were plentiful and locally grown. I failed to mention that one of the trees leading to the door of our vacation home was laden with a type of sweet berry. The big heart-shaped leaves on the tree were a dead giveaway that the tree was a fruiting mulberry (Morus alba). Typically found in Marin are the fruitless mulberry trees that play havoc on sidewalks with their shallow root systems. However, the marble gravel walk to the doorway was not jeopardized by these roots, and the berries were delicious as we sampled from this big tree.

Our first dinner in Tuscany continued to shock our senses—specifically Jeff’s senses as the proprietor suggested he try an aperitif made at their establishment. To date, we all continue to howl remembering Jeff’s expression as he indulged in what appeared to be a green slime liquid. After imbibing, however, he stated it was an amazing drink. We were all taken aback when told the drink was made from the leaf material of the hedge surrounding the outdoor patio. Our hostess, struggling with our lack of understanding in Italian, quickly departed from the restaurant and returned with leaf in hand—Grecian laurel (Laurus nobilis)—the true bay leaf that is called for in our recipes.

Tuscany countryside

View from the bedroom window in Tuscany

That night, we all turned in anticipating what the next day would bring. Little did we realize we would soon experience the screaming calf muscles that would result from traversing the steep hills and clambering up countless steps to explore all Tuscany held in store for us. I fell asleep that first night to the sound of perhaps a nightingale or mockingbird. My senses were still on overload but too tired to identify the lovely song.

More to follow next week.

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Marin County FairOur partners Marin Master Gardeners will be at the Marin County Fair today through Sunday with lots of great advice and resources for gardening in a drought. Drop by the “Potting Shed” to learn about designing low-water-use landscapes, water-wise edible gardening, and much more! Check out the schedule of activities.

The fair is open daily 11 a.m. – 11 p.m., July 2 – 6, at the county fairgrounds at 10 Avenue of the Flags in San Rafael.

Can’t make it to the fair? Marin Master Gardeners will come to you! Sign up for a Marin-Friendly Garden Walk at your home and get personalized, water-wise tips for a beautiful, healthy landscape. Watch the video below to learn more about the walks, then call 415-473-4204 to schedule your free appointment.


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by Christina Mountanos



As I looked around my garden this past weekend, I felt myself sigh in both satisfaction and a little relief. No doubt summertime is here and the plants in my north-facing garden are enjoying the warmer weather and longer days as much as I am! The star jasmine that turn pitifully bare every winter have resurrected themselves once again, and my bougainvillea is back and bigger than ever, spilling its maroon blossoms wildly over my neighbor’s fence.

As a beginning gardener, this has been my most productive spring yet. In contrast to previous years, almost all of the projects I’ve been working on have yielded good results. I’ve been successfully coaxing two morning glories up a trellis, patiently shaping a small collection of rosemary topiaries, and the petunias I received for my birthday in April are still alive and thriving in the intensifying sun. Surprisingly even the poppy seeds I scattered at the end of May have sprouted and grown!

Maybe it’s safe to say that I’ve finally gotten a handle on how things grow, and it’s likely that working in water conservation has helped. But, as far as I’ve come, I do often find myself still grappling with some of the most basic of gardening concepts. One that I struggled with recently? Roots! What’s so complicated about roots, you ask? Well, let me start by saying that if you’re well-versed in water-wise gardening, you’re surely familiar with the principle of watering deeply, but infrequently to encourage more drought-tolerant plants. If you haven’t heard this before, watering in this manner can create plants with roots that grow more deeply. Not only can plants with deeper, more extensive root systems find water and nutrients in more places, but having roots further away from the surface of the soil means they also stay moist longer and plants don’t dry out as quickly.

Rooting petunia

Petunia cutting sprouting roots on a window sill

It was this concept that got me thinking. How deep is “deeply,” exactly? Of course, watering my potted plants has always been easy; I simply water until it comes out the bottom (fool-proof!). But, as I graduated from the simplicities of planter gardening, I began wondering about the tall shrubs that run around the perimeter of my yard. How deep are their roots? And what about trees? Is it both possible and necessary to water their entire roots zones?

Well, what I have found is that plants and trees have portions of their root systems that can, in fact, grow very deep in the soil. You may remember Charlene mentioning in a previous post that some California annuals have roots that reach 20 feet! These deeper roots can serve as structural supports and to find water and nutrients in extreme conditions. Oak trees growing naturally on our watershed, and throughout Marin, typically have taproots that grow deeply for this reason.

However, I was surprised to find out that the vast majority of a plant’s root system is concentrated much closer to the surface than I originally thought. Roughly 80% of a tree’s roots, for example, are concentrated in the top 12 to 36 inches of soil. Quite amazing when you think of how tall trees can get! Roots are confined to this depth, for the most part, because this is where the most oxygen, minerals, and nutrients are readily available. These elements become less and less prevalent as depth increases, and thus roots do, too. Not surprisingly then, watering beyond a depth of 36 inches essentially wastes water and effort.

A great take-away tip that I found from the California Master Gardener Handbook, and one that I now use for hand watering, is the 1-2-3 rule. Water to a depth of one foot for small plants (like annuals and groundcovers), two feet for medium sized plants, and three feet for large shrubs and trees. How long it will take to reach this depth will vary depending on your soil type and the flow of your hose, so some initial experimentation is necessary. A day or so after watering, use a soil probe or a shovel to dig down and to see how far the water has traveled, then adjust accordingly. Consider using this same procedure to check that your irrigation runtimes are sufficient as well.

With this small token of wisdom comes another sigh of relief. So far, gardening has surely been a process for me. It’s been a piecemeal operation with successes, frustrations, a lot of listening to those wiser than me, and most importantly, enjoyment.

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by Keith Bancroft

Last December, I bought and moved into my first house (my first house!). When I moved, I brought with me a large assortment of container plantings I’d accumulated over the past dozen years or so—pineapple sage, ferns, agastache, salvia, fuchsia, honeysuckle, penstemon, bee balm, and various succulents. Now that I was in my own home and had a “real” yard to work with, I was eager to get my collection of potted plants into the ground where they belonged. But it was mid-winter, I had a seemingly never-ending list of DIY projects inside the house to keep me occupied (which, amazingly, continues to grow), and I knew the plants would be fine until I could find the time to give them a permanent in-ground home.

Save Our Water logoA few months later, just as I was starting to think about digging planting holes and getting the garden in order, a co-worker forwarded me a link to the Save Our Water website. Of particular interest to me was the section “Water-Wise Landscaping Basics,” which provides information on things to keep in mind when creating or maintaining a low water-use landscape. Even though I felt like I had a pretty good handle on water-wise gardening (based on almost 20 years working in water conservation), I found reviewing the site’s list of simple basic principles to be an excellent refresher. It’s easy to overlook the importance of mulch in reducing water use in the garden or to forget to adjust the irrigation schedule as often as one should. However, considering the record low rainfall we received last year, and the annual uncertainty of what future rain may fall, it’s a good idea for each of us to look at what we’re doing in our own gardens and make sure we’re following the basic framework of water-wise gardening.

The following is a slightly abbreviated version of the basic principles from the Save Our Water website:

Appropriate plant selection: Select trees, shrubs, and groundcovers based on their adaptability to your region’s soil and climate.

The right plants for the right soil: Knowing your soil and selecting the right kind of plants for your area is an important part of a water-wise landscape.

Limit your grass: Consider cutting back or eliminating the amount of turf you have at your house.

Efficient irrigation: The greatest waste of outdoor water is applying too much too often.

Mulch is good: Use mulch wherever possible. Mulch conserves water by significantly reducing moisture evaporation from the soil, reduces weed populations, prevents soil compaction, and moderates soil temperatures.

Appropriate maintenance: A well-designed landscape can decrease maintenance by as much as 50% through reduced mowing, once-a-year mulching, elimination of non-California-friendly plants, and more efficient watering techniques.

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by Charlene Burgi

The caps and gowns of graduation are behind us. Summer vacation has officially begun. Trips are planned and reservations are made for a long and well-deserved rest from the hubbub of routine schedules.

Alas, while preparing for vacation, we tend to put aside the fact that the evapotranspiration rate is at its highest peak in June and July, which means plants require more irrigation now than any other time of year. The days are longer and plants are at their peak performance—either flowering or fruiting. Vegetable gardens are rapidly nearing the time to begin harvesting.

The question is what to do about this conundrum of vacation plans during the garden’s critical time of need! Perhaps a few suggestions will alleviate the angst of keeping the garden alive for a week or two while you have some fun in the sun elsewhere.

  1. Get your plants in optimal health before leaving. If the plants are well-fed, insect-free, and well-hydrated, they will stand a much better chance of surviving while you are gone.
  2. Watering container plants with rope wick

    Creative water wicking

    Before leaving, remove all hanging containers. The exposure to wind and circulating air, plus heat from the sun, will dry out these plants in short order. Cluster the containers in a shady area of the garden. Place the containers that have drainage holes in trays filled with water. The soil will wick up the moisture from the tray to the root system of the plant. If you do not have drainage holes, place a large vessel of water near the cluster of container plants and insert a cotton rope or twine into the water so one end of the rope rests at the bottom. Drape the excess rope over the top of the soil in each planted container, or run individual ropes from the water to each plant. Again, the rope will wick up the water and provide moisture to each planted container. (Note: Lightly cover the water vessel to slow evaporation.)

  3. Plants in the ground may require a bit more creativity if you do not have an automatic irrigation system. There are hose timers that attach to a hose bib and are available at your local hardware or irrigation store that will automatically turn on and off at a designated day and time that you set. Run a hose to the area where plants are in need of irrigation and attach a soaker hose to the open end of the hose. Wind the soaker through the garden to each plant until all plants are adequately covered.
  4. Water jug drip system

    Water jug drip system

    Fill one-gallon empty milk containers with water and replace the cap. Insert a very tiny pin hole into the bottom of the container and place two or three like-containers around trees. (Experiment before leaving to see how long the water lasts.) Depending on the size of the pin prick, you might need to add another pin hole at the top of the container.

  5. If interested, you can add polymers to your existing soil (polymers are found at your local nursery) .The polymers will retain water and release moisture as the soil dries out. Read directions carefully before using. This is a case of, “if a little is good, a lot can be disastrous.”
  6. Lawns. Let them go! While turf grass is one of the highest consumers of water, lawns are also extremely forgiving. If your lawn is dependent on a manual sprinkler, you can either employ a hose timer, or let the lawn go into dormancy without water. After returning from vacation, resume your watering schedule and the lawn will green up in a short period of time.
  7. Mulch, mulch, mulch! Three inches of mulch in and around your plants will reduce evaporation and retain the moisture you are providing.
  8. Lastly, ask a neighbor to check in weekly. If milk jugs or water containers require refilling before your return, it wouldn’t take long to assist with this chore.

The topic of this blog is a cagey way for me to let you know I am leaving for Italy for two weeks’ vacation. Many of you know all of my grandparents came from northern Italy many, many years ago. My son, daughter, her husband, and I have family there to meet. I promise my return will fill these blogs with pictures and new-found knowledge of gardening in the “old country.” Meanwhile, enjoy the blog written by some of my former coworkers at the district who graciously offered to enlighten you each week that I am gone.

Until then, ciao!

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Something New

by Charlene Burgi

Last summer my vegetable garden struggled to grow despite my attempt to thwart the army of squirrels, rabbits, and other varieties of herbivore varmints within 50 miles that caught wind of planted vegetables. Try as I might, nothing stood in their way of consuming each tender morsel of green as it appeared from the richly worked soil. Wire baskets were overturned, five-foot perimeter fencing must have been a standing joke (if these critters communicated with each other), and even garlic and onion sprays couldn’t keep the onslaught at bay.

Don’t get me wrong: Tomatoes, peppers, cucumbers, and zucchini were safe from the furry marauders. And several plants managed to survive safely inside the greenhouse. But this year I wanted fresh green beans, peas, Swiss chard, strawberries, asparagus, Yukon Gold potatoes, garlic, onions, beets, and companion flowers filling the garden.

Hoop and U staple

Hoop and U staple

I had to try something new to dissuade the beasts and may have found an answer. First, Jack built several raised beds. We attached 3/8-inch hoops using U-shaped fence staples hammered to the inside lengths of the boards across from each other at one-foot intervals. The fence staples made perfect holding spaces to insert the hoops since they were hammered only half way into the board. After the plants and seeds were planted, a layer of ultra-light garden fabric was placed over the hoops and secured with clothes pins at the top of each hoop and on the bottom of each side of the hoop. Each end of the planter is secured with a 2×4 resting on top of the planter with the fabric sandwiched between the two boards.

Open for pollination

Open for pollination

During the daylight hours (and when the pups are outside and on critter patrol) I roll the fabric back to allow for any pollination required for fruit production. In the evenings, the fabric is put back in place and secured with the clothes pins.

Granted, this is only day two of the plantings but who could resist the strawberry/asparagus bed? The strawberries are turning red and almost ready for picking, and the asparagus is just working its way up through the trenches that are being backfilled with soil. Both are great companions sharing the same bed.

Secured planter

Secured planter

The second raised planting bed is teeming with bush beans, beets, carrots, and marigolds—yet another mixture of companion plants. Peas are planted in the ground behind each bed; my thought is to drape the excess fabric over the plants once the peas germinate. Potatoes are growing in the old clawfoot bath tub with onions—a good team together. I will leave the tomatoes, cukes, peppers, and zucchini to fend for themselves since they did so well last year.

Do you have trouble with critters in the garden? You might want to try this critter prevention program. We used recycled lumber lying around from the house construction so the costs to install were minimal.

On a side note, I was driving down past the old barn on our property last Sunday when four round furry balls came waddling across the pasture toward the car. I stopped as I couldn’t figure out what I was looking at until they drew closer … and closer—then challenged the car! There were four badgers with these adorable faces, growling as if they could conquer the world. Wouldn’t you know I failed to have my camera with me—or my cell phone! I wonder if they are herbivores? Hummmm!

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The Dilemma

by Charlene Burgi

Oft times we dream of adding water features in our gardens. The trickle of falling water draws people and wildlife to the soothing sounds. The shimmering blue water cools the air as well as those entering the area. Birds, bees, dragonflies, and butterflies along with other wildlife also benefit from the sustenance it provides.

However, the negatives of having a water feature in your garden can outweigh the positives. For example, large surface areas of water evaporate at a fast rate, requiring frequent refilling of the pond and consuming precious water resources. Pool covers that slow down evaporation are not an option to eliminate this problem. Even if covers for water features were available, the feature would lose its beauty and benefit if it were covered.

There are also the issues of mosquitoes breeding in the pools of water, pumps jamming with debris that finds its way into the system, and raccoons finding this spot a desirable way-station for washing their food before dining. If a water feature supports fish, the raccoons may consider this pond the best location for one-stop shopping and dining.

While building our new home, my husband Jack included a beautiful waterfall in the front with a modest-size pond. Yes, I love all the positives listed above including the family of toads that live there and croak us to sleep during the warm evenings.

Dog in a rock pond

Pup in the pond

The dilemma for us, in addition to the above list of negatives, is two golden retriever pups whose day wouldn’t be complete unless they found their way into the water—whether it be 35 degrees or 95 degrees outside. The dripping pups manage to collect the bark from the heavily mulched garden on their wet fur and then, more often than not, scamper into the house (they know how to open the door) and plop down on the living room carpet to share their adventure with us. Needless to say, the living room carpet is shampooed almost as often as one shampoos their hair!

Jack and I pondered the dilemma of keeping or eliminating the feature. The current water shortage, wet dogs, and the loss of wildlife that visit our garden to quench their thirst were all considered. We decided we could still meet our needs (and sanity) as well as the needs of wildlife if we converted the pond into a disappearing underground pond by placing our recirculating water pump into a water collection box hidden beneath the fall rocks. The falls would be lower, reducing evaporation; a screen placed over the water collection box would eliminate foreign debris from entering the pump area; and the natural, irregular depressions in the rocks under the falls would continue to support a watering hole for wildlife. I could add streams of low-growing lavender along the side of the bank where the pond was located. The newly created dry creek bed could be threaded with blue aubrietia and violets for spring/summer color and Ceratostigma plumbaginoides for continued fall color. The picture is in my head. Now to create it!

Lavender water plants along driveway

Lavender water illusion designed by Jack

Do you have this type of dilemma? Is there a water feature that is causing you more trouble than the time you have to give to it? Or are you thinking of adding a water feature to your garden but hadn’t realized the pitfalls of maintaining it—even with the help of golden retriever pups? Consider installing or revamping an existing water feature into a disappearing pond. (Remember that the water district requires all water features to use recirculating systems.) I can’t wait to see our outcome! If you have experience with ponds, and other water feature ideas, please share solutions with the readers!

I am wishing a well-deserved day of rest to those who serve or served in our military and their families. Blessings to all.

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by Charlene Burgi

Leaking sprinkler head

Sprinkler in need of repair

Have you ever been in a hurry and patched something together just to make it work? The quick fix may be intended to be temporary, but it is soon forgotten because the “band-aid” is still holding—by the skin of its teeth!

Admittedly, it doesn’t take much to forget the patch and be lulled by the warm sun that urges us to embrace a day of fun. After all, the electrical tape is still (almost) stopping the leaking hose. The valve can still work if it is turned on manually. And the epoxy putty seems to be doing the job on that P-trap under the sink. It is so easy to miss the magic words in the directions that state it is a temporary fix. And these fixes are just that—temporary.

I have learned over the years that temporary fixes can be costly! A few years ago, someone used an epoxy “band-aid” on a pipe under my kitchen sink. I had no idea it was there when I bought the house. And the product was as good as its word. Shortly after new hardwood floors were installed in the kitchen, the epoxy putty revealed its existence and the limits of its longevity. The slow leak seeped under the sink cabinet and made its way under the beautiful hardwood floors. The wood swelled ever so slightly in the form of a slight ridge. Then the buckling began. The insurance company wouldn’t cover the loss since the leak had existed for some time—albeit undetected! Fortunately, the hardwood floor person I use is a true craftsman and was able to repair the damage in short order, and I learned to install plastic trays under my sinks as added insurance!

Drip irrigation system leak flooding plants

Drip irrigation system leak

I often wonder how we get sidetracked or put leaks or breaks on hold. I remember people calling the water district to say their toilets flushed all by themselves. Did they know their toilet was leaking so severely that the water tank level needed to replenish itself and so flushed automatically to refill? Or does anyone realize they are robbing their plants of water if the water pressure is so high on their irrigation system that the water droplets atomize into the atmosphere before ever making it to the ground? That mist you see with high water pressure isn’t helping the root system that feeds your plants. A broken irrigation line can cause another serious hit to the pocketbook if it is flooding one area of the garden while failing to deliver water to the plants in another. In addition to water lost, the parched plants may be lost, too.

Another temporary fix is replacing a missing sprinkler head with the wrong size and type nozzle. Why would that matter? The gusher stopped, didn’t it? Let’s take a closer look at this band-aid. Some nozzles are rotors, some spray, and some are impacts—and they all perform differently. In addition, different irrigation manufacturers sell spray nozzles that provide different gallons per minute and throw water different distances. To keep things simple, let’s assume the spray nozzles installed in your garden provide three gallons of water per minute per nozzle. And let’s say all the nozzles on the valve are throwing the irrigation water 15 feet in order to attain head-to-head coverage for good distribution uniformity. (Distribution uniformity is applying water evenly to an area so it comes down like rain and the entire area receives an equal depth of water.) What would happen if the nozzle installed for a temporary fix only produced one gallon of water per minute? Or the temporary nozzle only threw out enough water to cover eight feet instead of 15 feet? It wouldn’t take long for a dry spot to develop while the warm sunny days found you away, playing in the sun.

My husband Jack has a motto that is good to live by: Do it once, do it right. It will save you time and money in a long run. If you are not certain how to “do it right,” hire a licensed plumber for indoor water issues or a licensed landscape contractor that specializes in irrigation. Then you can relax while taking in this beautiful weather!

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