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Archive for the ‘Charlene Burgi’ Category

Autumn in the Air

by Charlene Burgi

There is a change in the air. The afternoon thermometer still registers in the 80s, but evening temperatures are rapidly dropping. The cooler evenings find me and Jack spending more time outside assessing what is needed in the garden before winter hits. And we pray it comes with abundant rain and snow here in Lassen County, just as that wish extends for ample water supplies for the entire West Coast.

Our evening assessments determined our first priority is to add more mulch to protect the plants’ root systems this winter. Refreshing organic mulch should be done every other year, if not annually. During the summer months, organic mulch seems to break down more rapidly than during the winter months. But that’s not a bad thing: The decomposed mulch adds nutrients to the soil that, in turn, further break down to feed the plants. Additionally, the cool blanket of mulch in the summer miraculously becomes a warm comforter to those same roots in the cold weather.

Dogs resting in garden mulch

Pups enjoying the mulch

We often use a metal probe to determine where more mulch is needed. We find the sunny gardens require more than the shade garden where the elements are not as harsh. In addition, with the pups using the sunny gardens as a personal playground, the mulch in those areas has a tendency to wander off. The differing depths of mulch needed in various areas can throw off our calculations. How do you figure out how much is needed?

Determining the quantity of mulch required for adequate coverage can be more specific than a wild guess about how many premeasured bags of bark to buy. A tape measure, paper, and a pencil are the only tools needed to come up with the cubic yardage. Once you know how many cubic yards are needed, you can purchase in bulk from the landscape materials yard, which may be more favorable to the pocketbook. Are you ready for this exercise?

  1. Measure the length and width of the planting area you need to mulch.
  2. Multiply those two numbers together to find the square footage of the area.
  3. Divide the square footage by 9 to convert to square yards (there are 9 square feet in a square yard).
  4. Determine the depth of mulch needed.
  5. Divide that number of inches needed into 36 (a yard equals 36 inches).
  6. Then divide that answer into the square yards to come up with the cubic yards of mulch needed.
Measuring mulch depth

Measuring mulch depth

Did I lose you? Here is an example. I know my shade garden is 20 feet by 30 feet, which equals 600 square feet. When I divide that number by 9, it equals 66.67 square yards. I want a thick 4-inch layer of mulch in the shade garden, but the mulch is already 2 inches deep, so I only need an additional 2 inches of mulch. I divide the 2 inches I need into 36 inches to come up with the number 18. I then divide 18 into the square yardage and find I need 3.7 cubic yards of mulch for my shade garden area. If I didn’t have any bark in the shade garden, but still wanted 4 inches of mulch, I would use the same formula but divide the 36 inches by 4. The answer of 9 is then divided into the 66.67 square yards equaling 7.4 cubic yards.

There are other ways to calculate this. I am certain many of you will be willing to share your formula with others facing this quandary but wishing to do the right thing for their plants. As with gardening, we all have our own ways of achieving the bottom line. Most of us work out problems in the fashion we were taught. Jack taught this method to me many years ago and it stuck. Does anyone have another formula that is easier? For gardeners who feel math-challenged, MMWD’s cubic calculator is another option!

Now might be a good time to go for an evening walk in the garden. What do you find on your list of things to do? Are the pruning tools sharpened? Are spring-blooming bulbs needed to fill in an empty space while requiring little water? Or is it just a pleasant night to take in the beauty?

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by Charlene Burgi

Low water at Shasta Lake

Shasta Lake on August 25, 2014, looking west from Pit River Bridge (California Department of Water Resources)

The email messages and news about drought conditions are flooding my inbox and my senses. Pictures of Lake Oroville and Folsom depict mere ribbons where large bodies of waters once resided. Driving by Shasta Lake and the Pit River, I experienced a shocking eyewitness view of the voids where water once lapped banks and rippled along the water course. All around are signs of extreme drought conditions.

MMWD is faring better than much of the state, with reservoirs at 92% of average storage for this time of year. Those numbers reflect the great job everyone in Marin is doing right this minute. What amazes me is that the district’s seven reservoirs are totally dependent on rainfall. They are not fed by large rivers or snowfall from afar. The water saved in those reservoirs is the direct result of local weather conditions and local water conservation. With that said, congratulations on the job you are doing!

And what are you doing to help others find tricks to employ in their homes? I know MMWD is offering a variety of resources from on-site water-use surveys, to rebates for water-saving devices, to free shutoff nozzles for garden hoses (pick up yours at the Corte Madera office). But my curiosity and thirst for knowledge want to get more personal. What are you doing? How are you educating your family about water conservation? What tips can you share that others can utilize?

I, for one, sadly let the vegetable garden go. Not only are we conserving water by eliminating the irrigation to that area, but the multitude of squirrels and rabbits have devoured every fruit and veggie that began to resemble something edible. The mild winters have made way for prolific garden predators looking for anything to eat. Except for the asparagus, no vegetation was spared from the night marauders. Chain-link gates across the greenhouse door (left open for ventilation) made a perfect ladder for visitors to gain entry to coveted tomatoes. Nothing was spared including the basil, parsley, and Swiss chard. Forgive my rant. Once again, I digress!

Peony before and after pruning

Peony before and after pruning

You might be interested in another conservation method that works. You can slightly stress perennial plants that will go dormant, such as peonies. Keep roots just moist enough, but cut back or thin out vegetation to minimize the irrigation needed to keep viable what little foliage is left. The remaining canopy will still provide shade for the roots and crown. The smaller canopy of the plant will reduce the water needed. (The Weekly Watering Schedule lists irrigation needs for different canopy sizes.) Be advised not to remove more than a third of any plant when pruning, and make your thinning cuts back to an outside bud.

Thanks for taking the time to share what led you to a successful conservation effort. Keep up the great work!

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by Charlene Burgi

Rumor has it that we are in for an El Niño winter. I am not certain what that means since every report comes up with various predictions that span from getting drenched to mild inclement weather to continued drought.

Predictions are something to approach with a discerning ear. The fall/winter season would be better met with preparedness. Preparedness comes with paying attention to the indicators that surround us and acting prior to an event.

For example, a friend reported attending the Ready Marin program. When the earthquake struck in the wee hours this past Sunday, she was prepared with flashlights and necessary tools at hand (if needed) to turn off gas and water supplies. Yet others reported they woke up in a half stupor and attempted to collect their thoughts as to where they would even find a flashlight.

This week the news reported a water main break in San Francisco. One gentleman was capturing this precious commodity by the bucketful before it disappeared into the cavernous storm drain. He was prepared with whatever collection method he could find and conserved as much as he could.

Conserving water is more than turning the faucet off while brushing your teeth and exchanging high-water-use for high-efficiency fixtures in the house. It is more than switching to a smart controller or adjusting your controller to reflect the current ET loss for the week. These steps are extremely important for saving the water in our reservoirs, but by being prepared and making the best use of the water sources at hand we can conserve even more.

Each winter we anticipate rainfall, but are we prepared to utilize the falling rain? If we live on any kind of slope, we can create multiple bioswales running across the length of the slope to slow down the runoff. A bioswale requires some trenching, compacting the lower edge of the bioswale for erosion, and backfilling with porous material, such as bark. Planting two of my favorite deep-rooted shrubs—Pacific ninebark (Physocarpus capitatus) and red osier dogwood (Cornus stolonifera)—will help penetrate the clay soils above the swale and move the water deeper than the trenched bioswale.

Aster novae-angliae

Aster novae-angliae

Another idea is to collect the water from the downspout into trenches to carry water to a rain garden or meadow at least 10 feet away from the house foundation. Choose plant material that will thrive on the abundant rainwater that will collect there in the winter. Use rain garden plants such as Aster novae-anglaie or Lobelia cardinalis that attract butterflies and bees and provide nectar in the summer months.

Try designing a dry creek bed to capture the precious liquid from our rains. Wind the bed through the garden to deliver water to your trees or shrubs along the way. Tuck native grasses and wildflowers along the edges or plant some color into the dry creek bed. This task requires preparing now for winter.

These suggestions will take more than a shovel and wheel barrow. It will take planning and a list of equipment as follows:

Flowers in dry creek bed

Dry creek bed color (photo courtesy of Marie Shepard)

    • Soil, sand, clay, organic mulch
    • Building materials and construction (if built)
    • Organic compost
    • Tools (tractor, rakes, shovels, gloves, etc.)
    • Vegetation (seeds, plants, trees)
    • Gravel, rocks (large and small)

Are you prepared for the task at hand or will you watch the precious wet stuff disappear into the local storm drain this winter?

It is Labor Day weekend. Why not take a ride to the Mt. Tamalpais Watershed and glean ideas for imitating nature in your own garden?

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by Charlene Burgi

Over the years, many questions have popped up regarding the best way to irrigate. Some customers asked if it was best to irrigate a little every day, or every two days, etc. Others asked if it was best to irrigate in the morning, afternoon, or evening. Some wanted to know what irrigation method is best for hillside planting.

Overspray, an irrigation don't

Overspray: an irrigation don’t

And, over the years, many of you have heard me say to irrigate effectively as well as efficiently. To irrigate efficiently is to apply water to the root zone of the plant and replace just the amount of water lost due to evapotranspiration (ET). ET is the loss of water through transpiration from plants (we perspire, plants transpire) and through evaporation from soil. MMWD uses data from its weather stations to calculate the rate of ET and generate the Weekly Watering Schedule. Replacing just the amount of water lost keeps the plant and surrounding areas in balance, but this alone is not necessarily effective.

For example, suppose the ET loss for the week is one inch. A person could water a tiny bit daily, replacing just 1/7th inch of water each day to total one inch for the week. However, that tiny bit of water would barely wet the surface of the ground and evaporate quickly. Much better would be to apply a half inch twice a week or one inch of water weekly to get down to the root system of the plant. Water at that depth will take longer to evaporate—especially if there is a thick layer of mulch on top of the soil. That would be effective as well as efficient.

Another means of being more effective is to avoid irrigating when it’s windy or during the heat of the day. Typically, there is little wind during the evenings or early morning. If you set your controller to turn on after sunset or before sunrise, you’ll save water and comply with MMWD’s new daytime irrigation prohibition. Since your irrigation system will be in action while you sleep, do a quick monthly system check—running each station for a minute—to look for blown emitters or misaligned nozzles. During the month between system checks, simply look around in the morning. Do you see a puddle? Are the sidewalks wet? Are you finding dry spots or wilting plants? These are signs that adjustments or repairs may be needed.

Watering hillside plantings is a challenge in anyone’s book. There are steps that can be taken to make this irrigation challenge both effective and efficient. First, use very low-flow methods of irrigating such as drip emitters or MP rotators for overhead irrigation. Next, use multiple start and stop times on your controller. Some controllers call this the cycle/ soak program. Water for a brief time before you see any sign of runoff. At that time, program the controller to turn off. Let that water soak into the hillside for 20-30 minutes before setting the controller to start again. Continue the cycle/ soak until the water penetrates to the depth of the root system—but not until you find water run down the street!

Be water smart. A few moments to adjust your controller will yield water savings and happy plants. And please take a few minutes to become familiar with the current water conservation regulations.

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by Charlene Burgi

Bald Mountain Fire

Bald Mountain Fire

The dense smoke finally lifted from the valley floor where we live here in Lassen. The hundreds of firefighters, trucks, and fire equipment have done their job well. The lightning fires are finally extinguished in this neck of California. While friends were evacuated from their homes—some moving their horses at two o’clock in the morning—firefighters worked diligently around the clock and saved homes from the wildland fires.

A recent ride to the tiny town of Day, where one of the many fires started, spoke to me of fire danger. While homes showed good fire clearance, the open unattended properties told a different story. “Ladder” fuel was thick: Dry grass and shrubs choked the pine forest floor along the one-and-only 10-mile road into town. Fortunately for those living there, the lightning struck on the hilltops and the wind carried the fire north, away from the town and homes nestled below.

Seeing the area brought me back several years to before my employment with MMWD. A portion of my work at that time was to educate homeowners about the danger of wildland fires in Marin, Sonoma, and Napa Counties and what people could do to mitigate that threat. The road into Day made me think of the one-way roads in Fairfax, Corte Madera, and Mill Valley where fire engines require special clearances just to get around the tight switchback roads leading to the top of many tree-studded hills. Creating clearances often required removing privacy trees and shrubs, as well as plants known to contain oils that feed fire. Some homeowners embraced that education while others resisted, thinking a fire could never happen where they live.

Horse grazing

Mission accomplished: Cash at work clearing weeds

Fire safety becomes critical in your thinking process when you live in “brush country” as the insurance companies label this area, otherwise known as SRA (State Responsibility Area). Our home and surrounding land is inspected annually by CalFire to make certain the ground is clear and trees are limbed up to at least 10 feet. It is an inspection that I welcome and appreciate. I can honestly thank the donkeys and horses for their work clearing the ground and Jack’s manpower and chainsaws for limbing up the trees. We designed the landscaped areas with trees and shrubs chosen for their low water use and high tolerance to fire. Plant choices are good, but maintenance—including removing dry vegetation—is imperative. Additional insurance is keeping the landscaping well-irrigated, which is a challenge during the drought we are experiencing.

What can you do to protect your home from fire? First, remove all dead and dying debris from your property. Remove tree limbs that are less than 10 feet from the ground or that overhang your home. Keep wood piles away from your home. Add a stone retaining wall if your home was built within a natural “chimney” such as a canyon or ravine. Create a large “green” zone around your home to make it difficult for ground fire to encroach. This area can include patios, stone walls, low-growing groundcovers as suggested by CalFire, swimming pools, and the like. For the next zone further away from the house, choose fire-resistant species and leave space between plants to prevent the spread of fire.

Lastly, have a list handy of all your important paperwork, pictures, and valuables. Friends here scanned pictures and paperwork and saved them to a cloud file before they were asked to evacuate.

Are you fire safe? This is a good weekend to investigate how you can protect your property better.

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The Last Leg

by Charlene Burgi

(This is the final installment of our garden expert Charlene’s trip to Italy. Read the previous installment here.)

Mountain village and church in Switzerland

Switzerland

The morning of our departure, we deliberated about taking this trip since another storm railed about us. We hoped for the best and traversed the flooded, narrow roads leading us away from Lezzeno on Lake Como. The rains finally subsided as we headed north through the breathtaking Alps. Switzerland is so clean and seems, in contrast to Italy, very modern. We arrived at Flüelen at the southern tip of Lake Lucerne where another boat trip would take us to our destination. To my delight, the color of the lake reminded me of the turquoise waters found in the Canadian Rockies. The water was clear and sparkled as the sun appeared to throw glitter at the wave caps. The mountains were covered by emerald green carpets of grass exposed to the year-round rains. The countryside was beautiful as the boat took us from one town to the next.

Water drainage through town of Gersau

Drainage through the town of Gersau

Upon our arrival at Gersau, we walked the charming streets. I was impressed with the practice of water management that focused on drainage and erosion control that blended in with the surroundings. A rather large watercourse cut through the town, originating somewhere in the mountains above. The watercourse had rock-lined steps within that created mini waterfalls enhancing the landscapes. Small gardens along the watercourse were tended by families who each added their own design and special touches to their given area. I could imagine Jack’s father, a renowned landscape engineer in his day, rollicking as a child through the town park where specimen trees flourished. Trees were Jack O. Burgi’s passion, and he was noted for moving full-grown trees at such places as Hearst Castle in San Simeon, the World’s Fair on Treasure Island, and the private residence of the Hearst family in McCloud. His passion for the beauty of nature is understandable after experiencing where his roots originated.

Herb garden along the watercourse in Gersau

Herb garden along the watercourse in Gersau

Family capped our final days in Italy. The day before we left, we met with my mother’s side of the family in Oleggio in the region of Piedmont. Both of my grandmothers were born in this lovely town. Walking the streets knowing they were here at one time and left never to return brought such respect for their courage and strength of character. Lynette and Randy kept wondering why they would want to leave such a wonderful place.

I am without words trying to describe the welcome my cousins gave us. My cousin Giuseppe met us in town and gave us a grand tour of the plazas, shops, and beautiful churches where I imagined my grandmothers attended. After the tour we went to the family home where Giuseppe’s wife, Maria Grazie, prepared a meal reminiscent of meals served by my grandmothers on holidays. Her homemade cannelloni stuffed with a type of cream cheese and prosciutto will forever be remembered by my lips and hips! Their daughter Elisabetta prepared the dessert, a tiramisu that had to be six inches tall. Everything was homemade and fresh, and the food just kept coming. We were also pleasantly surprised by a visit from another distant family member on my father’s side of the family who dropped in to say hello and provided translations for two families struggling to communicate! Serena attempted to see how my grandfather was related to her side. It was that afternoon that we found the link between the families!

Miniature pears on tree

Miniature pears

We all took a break after the seven-course meal and sat out in the garden where fruit trees were laden with figs, peaches, cherries, pears, and so much more. Maria Grazie and Giuseppe soon disappeared into the kitchen to make pizza dough for twelve pizzas for an evening dinner—a family specialty with two wood-burning pizza ovens located in the house as well as in the garden. Needless to say, we left that night with full hearts and stomachs.

This family time was my highlight. My children and I saw ancient history and witnessed wonders, but family is all about the heart. I will always remember the warmth, hospitality, and love of this Italian family as they shared so openly with us.

Man making pizza

Giuseppe’s finest pizza

Thank you for indulging me while I shared this trip with you. It was a dream come true. I found, as with Jack’s father and his roots, I too could bask in the memories of where my roots came from and the wealth of knowledge I inherited as a result.

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To the North

by Charlene Burgi

(This is part four of our garden expert Charlene’s trip to Italy. Read the previous installment here.)

Rain clouds over Lake Como in Italy

At Lake Como: Here comes the rain

The clock was ticking. We had one short week left to explore the part of Italy where my grandparents grew up many years ago. We said our goodbyes to Cinque Terre and headed to explore the Piedmont and Lombardy regions far to the north as Lake Como was our destination for our next exciting adventure.

And exciting it was. The weather at Lake Como provided us with a phenomenal thunder and lightning show that volleyed back and forth across the lake into the wee hours. Though shutters rattled and rain pounded, we found an awesome retreat under a covered portion of the house just above lake level where we took in the surrounding beauty of the Alps peeking through the storm clouds and highlighted by flashing bolts of lightning.

Water saving feature

Water-saving feature

Our day trips found us in nearby Bellagio where we once again traipsed over hill and dale to explore the many shops found in this quaint little town. While there, Lynette and I visited a public restroom and were perplexed when we needed to turn on the sink faucet. Looking around for any indicator of something to turn on, we found a black rubber dome on the floor and were pleasantly surprised that water came out of the faucet when we stepped on the dome. What a delightful idea to eliminate water wasters in public buildings! The practice of conserving water and energy extended to the home as well. Each place where we stayed provided front-load washing machines, but no dryers. Clothes hung out to dry in every hamlet, town, and city that we drove through. I must admit, we were a bit challenged during the rain storm to find locations to hang our laundry!

Ficus repens winding around historic buildings

Ficus repens

One day while at Lake Como we took a boat ride to Villa del Balbianello, a 16th-century estate originally established as a Franciscan monastery for Cardinal Durini’s need to get away from it all. And what a concept since the only access to the estate was by boat. The estate gardens were spectacular. The main living structure sat high on top of the hill with pathways winding up from the boat dock through lawn-studded landscapes. Fountains, garden art, and glorious flowers representing the colors of the Italian flag captured my attention. I studied the severity of the slopes where the lawns grew and noted that Liriope was the ground cover at the steepest areas. Hydrangeas graced planting areas and Ficus repens wound decoratively over the ancient buildings. I could understand why this place of beauty was chosen as a shooting location for feature films such as Star Wars Episode Il: Attack of the Clones and the 2006 James Bond film Casino Royale.

Simple landscaping

Simple landscaping

Each evening we found comfort in returning to the downstairs of our home away from home. While the landscaped area between us and the lake was sparse, it reminded me that our landscapes should reflect their surroundings. At this location, an elaborate landscape could detract from the beauty of the lake surrounded by magnificent mountain ranges. A day trip to Switzerland drove that point home—sometimes less is more. More on that side trip next week.

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